Kerala is a state located in southwestern India. Neighbouring states include Karnataka to the north and Tamil Nadu to the south and east; to the west is the Arabian Sea. Besides the state capital Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum), the other major cities in Kerala are Kochi (Cochin), Kozhikode (Calicut), Thrissur and Kollam. The principal spoken language is Malayalam.
A 3rd-century-BC rock inscription by emperor Asoka the Great attests to a Keralaputra . Around 1 BC the region was ruled by the Chera Dynasty, which traded with the Greeks, Romans, and Arabs. In the 1st century AD Jewish immigrants arrived, and it is believed that St. Thomas the Apostle visited Kerala in the same century. Feudal Nair and Namboothiri Brahmin city-states subsequently gained control of the region. Early contact with Europeans gave way to struggles between colonial and native interests. On 1 November 1956 the States Reorganisation Act elevated Kerala to statehood.
The state is known for achievements such as near 100% literacy rate, among the highest in India. A survey conducted in 2005 by Transparency International ranked Kerala as the least corrupt state in the country. Kerala is uniquely dependent on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community based mainly in Persian Gulf countries.
The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera-alam ("declivity of a hill or a mountain slope") or chera alam ("Land of the Cheras"). Kerala may represent an imperfect Malayalam portmanteau fusing kera ("coconut palm tree") and alam ("land" or "location"). Natives of Kerala , known as Malayalis or Keralites , refer to their land as Keralam . [more...]
It is not certain if the region was inhabited during Neolithic times. However, there is evidence of the emergence of prehistoric pottery and granite burial monuments in the form of megalithic tombs in the 10th century BC; they resemble their counterparts in Western Europe and other parts of Asia. These are thought to be produced by speakers of a proto-Tamil language. Kerala and Tamil Nadu once shared a common language, ethnicity and culture; this common area was known as Tamilakam. According to legend, Kerala was an Asura-ruled kingdom under Mahabali. Onam, the state-wide festival of Kerala , is dedicated to Maveli's memory. Another legend has Parasurama, an avatar of Mahavishnu, throwing his battle axe into the sea; from those waters, Kerala arose. [more...]
Kerala is wedged between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats. Lying between north latitudes 8°18' and 12°48' and east longitudes 74°52' and 72°22', Kerala is well within the humid equatorial tropics. Kerala 's coast runs for some 580 km (360 miles), while the state itself varies between 35 and 120 km (22-75 miles) in width. Geographically, Kerala can be divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands (rugged and cool mountainous terrain), the central midlands (rolling hills), and the western lowlands (coastal plains). Located at the extreme southern tip of the Indian subcontinent, Kerala lies near the centre of the Indian tectonic plate; as such, most of the state is subject to comparatively little seismic and volcanic activity. Pre-Cambrian and Pleistocene geological formations compose the bulk of Kerala 's terrain. [more...]
With 120-140 rainy days per year, Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon. In eastern Kerala , a drier tropical wet and dry climate prevails. Kerala 's rainfall averages 3,107 mm annually. Some of Kerala 's drier lowland regions average only 1,250 mm; the mountains of eastern Idukki district receive more than 5,000 mm of orographic precipitation, the highest in the state. [more...]
Much of Kerala 's notable biodiversity is concentrated and protected in the Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve in the eastern hills. Almost a fourth of India's 10,000 plant species are found in the state. Among the almost 4,000 flowering plant species (1,272 of which are endemic to Kerala and 159 threatened) are 900 species of highly sought medicinal plants. [more.....]
Kerala 's fourteen districts are distributed among Kerala 's three historical regions: Malabar (northern Kerala ), Kochi (central Kerala ), and Travancore (southern Kerala ). Kerala 's modern-day districts (listed in order from north to south) correspond to them as follows:
Malabar : Kasaragod, Kannur, Wayanad, Kozhikode, Malappuram, Palakkad
Kochi : Thrissur, Ernakulam
Travancore : Kottayam, Idukki, Alappuzha, Pathanamthitta, Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram [more...]
Kerala is governed via a parliamentary system of representative democracy; universal suffrage is granted to state residents. There are three branches of government. The unicameral legislature, the Kerala Legislative Assembly, comprises elected members and special office bearers (the Speaker and Deputy Speaker) elected by the members from among themselves. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker and in his absence by the Deputy Speaker. Kerala has 140 Assembly constituencies. The state sends 20 members to the Lok Sabha and 9 to the Rajya Sabha, the Indian Parliament's upper house. [more...]
Relatively few such enterprises are major corporations or manufacturers. Per-capita GSDP is Rs. 11,819 (US$ 237.09) , above the Indian average and far below the world average. Kerala 's Human Development Index rating is the highest in India. This apparently paradoxical " Kerala phenomenon" or " Kerala model of development" of high human and low economic development results from the strong service sector. Kerala 's economy depends on emigrants working in foreign countries (mainly in the Gulf countries such as Dubai or Bahrain) and remittances annually contribute more than a fifth of GSDP. [more...]
Kerala is unique in India for its diverse mix of religions. According to Census of India figures, 56% of Kerala residents are Hindus, 24% are Muslims, 19% are Christians, and the remaining 1% follow other religions including Sikhism, Jainism, Buddhism, Judaism. Hindus basically consists of castes such as the Ezhavas, Nairs, Dalits and Kerala Brahmins. [more...]
Kerala has 145,704 kilometers (90,536 mi) of roads (4.2% of India's total). This translates to about 4.62 kilometers (2.87 mi) of road per thousand population, compared to an all India average of 2.59 kilometers (1.61 mi). Virtually all of Kerala' s villages are connected by road. Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10-11% every year, resulting in high traffic and pressure on the roads. Kerala 's road density is nearly four times the national average, reflecting the state's high population density. Kerala 's annual total of road accidents is among the nation's highest. [more...]
Kerala 's healthcare system has garnered international acclaim. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization designated Kerala the world's first "baby-friendly state". For example, more than 95% of Keralite births are hospital-delivered. Aside from ayurveda (both elite and popular forms) siddha , and unani , many endangered and endemic modes of traditional medicine, including kalari , marmachikitsa and vishavaidyam , are practiced. These propagate via gurukula discipleship,,and comprise a fusion of both medicinal and supernatural treatments and are partly responsible for drawing increasing numbers of medical tourists. [more...]
Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics . The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics was a school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala , South India, which included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar. The school flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries and the original discoveries of the school seems to have ended with Narayana Bhattathiri (1559-1632). In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently created a number of important mathematics concepts. [more...]
Kerala's culture is derived from both a Tamil-heritage region known as Tamilakam and southern coastal Karnataka. Later, Kerala 's culture was elaborated upon through centuries of contact with neighboring and overseas cultures. Native performing arts include koodiyattom (a 2000 year old Sanskrit theatre tradition, officially recognised by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity), kathakali -from katha ("story") and kali ("performance")-and its offshoot Kerala natanam , koothu (akin to stand-up comedy), mohiniaattam ("dance of the enchantress"), thullal , padayani , and theyyam . [more...]
Several ancient ritualised arts are Keralite in origin. These include kalaripayattu - kalari ("place", "threshing floor", or "battlefield") and payattu ("exercise" or "practice"). Among the world's oldest martial arts, oral tradition attributes kalaripayattu' s emergence to Parasurama. Other ritual arts include theyyam and poorakkali . Football is the most popular sport in the state, some notable football stars from Kerala include I. M. Vijayan, V. P. Sathyan, and Jo Paul Ancheri. Cricket, which is the most-followed sport in the rest of India and South Asia, is less popular in Kerala . Other popular sports include Badminton, Volleyball, and Labadie. Kerala has a rich history of producing world class athletes, including P. T. Usha, T. C. Yohannan, Suresh Babu, Shiny Wilson, K. M. Beenamol, M. D. Valsamma and Anju Bobby George. [more...]
Kerala , situated on the lush and tropical Malabar Coast, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. Named as one of the "ten paradises of the world" and "50 places of a lifetime" by the National Geographic Traveler magazine, Kerala is especially known for its ecotourism initiatives. Its unique culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demographics, has made Kerala one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. Growing at a rate of 13.31%, the state's tourism industry is a major contributor to the state's economy. The early 1980s, Kerala was a relatively unknown destination; most tourist circuits focused on North India. Aggressive marketing campaigns launched by the Kerala Tourism Development Corporation, the government agency that oversees tourism prospects of the state, laid the foundation for the growth of the tourism industry [more...]
Keralites have proved their deligence and extra ordinary brillience through out the world. Keralites are well known for their honesty and efficiency in all fields. In the list of Prominent Personalities we have tried to include all famous personalities from Kerala. We are trying to collect the details of the rest. If you have the details of any such personalities, please send to us.